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Vishuddha Sarasvata Sri Caitanya Panjika

Vaishnava calendar

International society
"Traditional Gaudiya Vaishnavism"

The naming of the calendar

Visuddha Sarasvata Sri Chaitanya Panjika is a calendar, which consists of five parts. Panjika means five parts. These five fields of astronomic knowledge are essential for spiritual practice and material harmony for the sake of spirit. Chaitanya means Consciousness. Sri Chaitanya implies that without the Supreme Consciousness, without the will of Krishna called Chaitanya, when He is giving his causeless mercy to the living beings, no blessing knowledge is available. Krishna is giving His mercy, the Supreme Good, either Himself or through His eternal associates. This calendar is named Sarasvata as Sri Krishna Chaitanya has manifested this calendar by the mercy of his close associate Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Prabhupada, the founder of world preaching movement glorifying Eternal Lord Krishna, the Cause of all causes and the only cause of His own mercy. All glories to merciful Sri Krishna! All glories to Sri Srimad Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Prabhupada! All glories to this Visuddha Sarasvata Sri Chaitanya Panjika!

The credibility of the calendar

Completeness and perfection of Sri Chaitanya Panjika has been proved by the pure and elevated nature of the original compiler of this calendar. There is no need for any other evidence but a desire to glorify Srila Jagannatha Dasa Babaji Maharaja and Srila Saccidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura as the calendar was compiled thanks to their blessings. All glories and obeisances to these highly spiritual persons!

Mathematical perfection of the calendar is based on the Surya-siddhanta approaches, and the calculations of dates for all significant events correspond with the detail instructions given in Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa and other vaishnava-granthas.

The universality of the calendar

Inspired by Krishna ancient sages marked the approaches in defining starting points for the calendar, which match life rhythms in our part of the universe. This calendar is objective and free from contradictions any time of the year as it is based on reciprocal positions of the Sun and the Moon. Any tradition of knowledge transfer can be ruined by time or current mistakes in calculations. But the position of the Sun and the Moon can always be calculated if we need to figure on the calendar. This is the unique practical worth of this calendar, known in the scientific world as Hindu lunisolar calendar.

The recreation of the calendar

Hindu lunisolar, or Vedic, calendar must have five parts, which are essential for life, especially religious one. After thousands of years, the completeness of the calendar was lost, it lacked such detail characteristics of lunar days as suddha and veddha, which showed if the day was good for some holiday or fasting, or it was not, when there was superposition of the previous day. The remembrance days of the great sages, the dates of their appearance and disappearance were not marked in the calendar any more. А tradition of naming days, months and directions of the Sun movement changed several times and that decreased the spiritual value of the tradition which was meant to unite the sphere of matter and spirit.

However, thanks to the power of knowledge, impeccable determination, transcendental awareness in the deepest issues of philosophical conclusions and the living tradition of true saints, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Prabhupada managed to restore what was ruined by time. Practical mathematical and astronomical principles of the calendar were totally based on the genuine tradition.

The reconstruction of the calendar was very important for the mission preaching the glories of the Creator of all Vedic principles, Sri Krishna. And this work was even more appreciable when we consider it from the point of a huge number of great things Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Prabhupada has done being Jagadguru, the teacher of the universe, the founder of the worldwide preaching of Sri Krishna’s glories.

Worldwide preaching meant that traditional Vaisnava calendar glorifying Krishna was to be calculated for western countries as well.

Vaishnava calendar in the West

Using western approaches to calculate the positions of the planets and following the principles of Sri Chaitanya Panjika, western Vaisnava scientists compiled Vaisnava calendar for the whole world.

The Acharyas, great teachers, accepted this attempt and gave their blessings to follow the calculations of the five parts of the calendar in the west. Some drawbacks of the calendar did not affect the great revolutionary mission preaching the most ancient and important message of love to God.

These minor drawbacks of the western version of the calendar can be eliminated, as they are just the cost of the first attempts to understand the Vedic calendar in a milieu with other peculiarities of time calculation.

The western version of the calendar in northern latitudes, as well as in many southern ones, is often difficult to use, or it is impossible to calculate it. People live above the polar circle and there are cities there, but there are no daily sunrise and sunset, so one cannot calculate tithi, the lunar day, which is the main time unit in the Vedic calendar. Even closer to the south on the same level with European cities, it is not very easy to follow the principle of Brahmamuhurtha and fulfill one’s religious duties before the sunrise as this time is different every day. In summer, Brahmamuhurtha can begin soon after midnight or extremely early, but that is the recommended timespan to begin the day. In winter, on the contrary, the Sun can rise after 10 in the morning, which means the morning mantras are to be read around this time, and that is completely inconvenient for people following western rhythm of life.

Peculiarities of this edition of the calendar

Sri Chaitanya Panjika, or Navadvipa Panjika, was calculated exactly for India, but it contains universal conceptions. Researching the principles of the ancient scriptures precisely, we will notice that the traditional Vedic calendar is not limited in terms of time calculation; these principles make the calendar universal for all the humanity. The most important principle is the statement of Srila Vyasadeva, who is the compiler of all Vedic literature, that in the Vedic tradition day is equal to night, which means that in the lunisolar calendar the sunrise and the sunset are calculated not like in the western calendar. This statement, actually many statements of the Vedic literature according to which day and night are equal in length, proves the necessity of taking into account not a visible horizon, but a true astronomical one while making calculations. If we consider it in our calculations, the day will be equal to night and the sunrise will be always at the same time. The sunrise is the starting point of the calendar; the beginning of lunar days, dates of holidays, the beginning and the end of fasting are calculated according to it. If the sunrise calculation is based on the Vedic instructions, the Vaisnava calendar will be universal for the whole humanity.

In this edition of Visuddha Sarasvata Sri Chaitanya Panjika we use astronomical, or true, horizon and so the calendar can be calculated for any place of the world. And that has been fully done in this calendar. Hare Krishna!


1. Fasting rules for Shuddha Ekadashi and Maha-Dvadashi

1.1. Introduction

varṇānām āśramāṇāṁ ca strīṇāṁ vara-varṇinī
ekādaśy-upavāsas tu kartavyo nātra saṁśayaḥ

Lord Siva said to Parvati:

“Oh dear wife, among all kinds of social and spiritual orders for even women, everyone should fast on Ekadashi day. Of this, there is no doubt.”

(Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 12.74, Padma Purana Uttarakhanda,

conversation between Lord Siva and Parvati)

ekādaśī-vrataṁ nāma sarvābhīṣṭa-pradaṁ nṛṇām
kartavyaṁ sarvathā vipra viṣṇu-prīti-karaṁ yataḥ

“Although the Ekadashi vow grants all that is desired, brahmanas who know all the prescribed duties, follow it just to satisfy Lord Vishnu.”

(Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 12.8)

1.2. Pure and impure Ekadashi, Maha-Dvadashi

It is important to fast only on pure Ekadashi, if it is impure the fasting is transferred to Dvadashi. The Vaishnava calendar always indicates fasting only on Pure Ekadashi or Maha-Dvadashi.

ekādaśīm upavased dvādaśīm athavā punaḥ
vimiśrāṁ vāpi kurvīta na daśamyā yutāṁ kvacit

“Ekadashi and Dvadashi are both qualified for fasting. Furthermore, one should fast when Ekadasi is combined with Dvadashi, but one should never fast when Ekadashi is combined with Dashami.”

(Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 12.202, Saura-dharmottara)

Fasting on Ekadashi is also transferred to Dvadashi, if it has certain characteristics described in the holy scriptures. There are eight such Maha-Dvadashi: Unmilani, Vyanjuli, Trisprsa, Paksavardhini, Papanasini, Jaya, Vijaya, Jayanti.

From the conversation between Suka Goswami and Saunaka:

“Оh, brahmin! Eight Maha-Dvadashi – Unmilani, Vyanjuli, Trisprsa, Paksavardhini, Jaya, Vijaya, Jayanti and Papanasini – are extremely favorable and neutralize the consequences of sinful activities. Of the above, the first four happen under the influence of tithi, or lunar days, and the last four happen under the influence of nakshatras, or stars. They all destroy the effects of sins.”

(Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 13.265-266, Brahmavaivarta Purana)

In this Vaishnava calendar, all the necessary parameters are taken into account in order to accurately calculate the purity of Ekadashi and holidays.

1.3. All Ekadashi require equal respect

Shastras forbid to emphasize Ekadashi of the light half of the month or, conversely, the dark half. Distinguishing Pandava Nirjal Ekadashi from a number of other Ekadashi also doesn't conform to the

concept of holy scriptures. Sri Bhimasena received special blessings to follow Nirjal Ekadashi in special circumstances, but these blessings relate specifically to this Pandava, therefore Ekadashi is called Pandava Nirjala Ekadashi.

ekādaśyāṁ nirāhāro yo bhuṅkte dvādaśī-dine
śuklā vā yadi vā kṛṣṇā tad vrataṁ vaiṣṇavaṁ mahat

Both the Ekadasi from the light fortnight and the one from the dark fortnight are equally powerful. Fasting on Ekadashi and eating on Dvadashi (note: to break fast) is a great vow of Vaisnavas.

(Matsya Purana, Bhavishya Purana, Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 12.54)

yathā śuklā tathā kṛṣṇā viśeṣo nāsti kaścana

“There is no difference in the rules for Shukla and Krishna (Paksha).”

(Vishnu Purana, Saura Purana, Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 12.37)

saputraś ca sabhāryaś ca svajanair bhakti-saṁyutaḥ
ekādaśyām upavaset pakṣayor ubhayor api

“Everyone should, together with his wife, children and other relatives, fast with devotion on the fast (upavasa) of Ekadashi of both fortnights of the lunar month (paksha).”

(Vishnudharmottara Purana, Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 12.47)

1.4. Always prohibited

It is always forbidden to eat: meat, fish, eggs, onion, garlic, carrot, red lentils (masur-dal).

1.5. Fasting rules


On Ekadashi, fasting without water is auspicious.

prāṇātyaye na cāśnanti dinaṁ prāpya harer narāḥ
kurvanti jāgaraṁ rātrau sadā bhāgavatā hi te

“One who, in spite of great difficulties, in order to satisfy Lord Hari does not eat during the day (Ekadashi) and is awake at night, he is truly a devotee.”

(Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 10. 7)

It is acceptable to take prasadam, which does not contain any products prohibited on Ekadashi.

aṣṭaitāny avrata-ghnāni āpo mūlaṁ phalaṁ payaḥ
havir brāhmaṇa-kāmyā ca guror vacanamauṣadham

“Eight things do not break one’s fast: water, fruits, roots, milk, ghee, a medicine, the order of a brahmana or a spiritual master”.

(Mahabharata, Udyama-parva; Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 12.100)

Products prohibited on Ekadashi:

  1. all grains and beans*;

yāni kāni ca pāpāni brahma-hatyā-samāni ca
annam āśritya tiṣṭhanti обитать samprāpte hari-vāsare
tāni pāpāny avāpnoti bhuñjāno hari-vāsare

“All sins, including the sin of killing a brahmana, take refuge in the grains during Hari-vasar (Ekadasi). Those who eat grains on Hari-vasar take all these sins.”

(Naradiya Purana, Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 12.19)


а) buckwheat does not belong to grains, but it must be carefully sorted so that there isn't a single grain in it;

b) peanuts do not belong to beans.

  1. tomatoes*;
  2. eggplants*;
  3. bell pepper *;

*Note: according to the principle avrata-ghnani apo mulam phalam, roots and fruits do not break fast. Some allowed vegetables also refer to the word phalam (fruit or root) according to the principle brahmanya-kamya cha guror. As it has been stated by acharyas, cucumbers, pumpkin and berries can be taken on Ekadashi, but eggplants and bell pepper cannot.

  1. leafy vegetables including all kinds of cabbage, salads of all kinds, spinach, celery, herbal teas, leafy herbs like parsley, dill, basil, oregano*;

*Note: shastras directly prohibit eating shak, green herbs, while fasting (Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 13.15). Moreover, leafy vegetables and herbs are not included in the list of products, which do not break fast:

mūlaṁ phalaṁ pajaḥ havir brahmanja-kamja cha guror.

  1. Beet*;

*Note: beet belongs to the category of mulam, it is a root, but here we also stick to the principle

brahmanja-kamya cha guror, the conclusion of the previous acharyas is not to take beet on Ekadashi.

  1. honey;
  2. sesame, mustard;
  3. oils made of seasame, mustard and soy;
  4. corn starch, soy sauce and other products containing ingredients, prohibited on Ekadashi;
  5. bitter melon (karela);
  6. someIndian vegetables: loki, parmal, toroi, kunli, drumsticks, bindi (ladies' fingers) and banana flowers.

1.6. Other Ekadashi vows

The rules of Ekadashi imply brahmacharya, renunciation of intimate relations, the day before Ekadashi, on Ekadashi and the day after Ekadashi. The same rule applies to the appearance days of Vishnu-tattva.

“During these three days you should sleep on the floor and avoid sex life. Thus, fix your mind on the lotus feet of Lord Krishna, the Supreme controller and the original Supreme Personality of Godhead. You must also take food once in Dvadashi.”

(Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 13.7)

Sage Shatatapa said:

"Observing the Ekadashi vow, one cannot speak a lie, sleep during the day and have sex.”

(Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 13.39)

1.7. The main Ekadashi rule

The main rule is that Ekadashi should be dedicated to spiritual practice.

“Scientific authorities have stated that chanting the holy names of the Lord, chanting mantras directed to the Supreme Lord, meditating on the transcendental form of the Lord, speaking and hearing about the Lord’s qualities and activities, and worshiping Him are the best activities performed on the day of fasting.”

(Vishnudharmottara Purana, Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 13.46)

1.8. Breaking fast

The day after fasting, one must complete a paran, break fasting, by taking water if the fast was complete, or taking grain prasadam if one took prasadam or water during Ekadashi. The time when it is necessary to break fasting is always indicated in the Vaishnava calendar.

ekādaśyāṁ nirāhāro yo bhuṅkte dvādaśī-dine
na sa durgatim āpnoti narakāṇi na paśyati

“One who fasts on Ekadashi and then takes food on Dvadashi will avoid suffering and will never see hell.”

(Bhavishya Purana, Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 12.173)

“After fasting properly on Ekadashi, one should break fast on Dvadashi by taking Mahaprasadam with the leaves of Tulasi and at that time millions of the sins are burnt.”

(Skanda Purana, Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 13.237)

“It does great harm if one misses Dvadashi and doesn't break fast on it. Just as it is a sin to cross the Saraswati River without first bathing in it, it is also a sin to follow Ekadashi and then not to break fast on Dvadashi. ”

(Padma Purana, Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 13.238)

"One who does not show proper respect to Dvadashi throws his piety into the fire."

(Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 13.240, Skanda Purana)

2. Fasting rules for Vishnu-tattva appearance days

The rules for celebrating appearance days of Vishnu-tattva imply fasting according to the rules of Ekadashi. Just like in the situation with Ekadashi, the rules for determining the purity of the day are always taken into account when calculating the Vaishnava calendar.

itthaṁ ca janmāṣṭamyādi-vratāny api na vaiṣṇavaiḥ
biddheṣv ahaḥsu kāryāṇi tādṛg-doṣa-gānāśrayāt

“Vows like Janmashtami also become impure due to the penetration of another day.”

(Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 12.352)

“If Ashtami is in contact with Saptami, it must be abandoned, even if the Rohini nakshatra is present. In this case, the person must keep fast on the next pure Navami. ”

(Padma Purana, Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 15. 365)

The Vaishnava calendar calculates Janmashtami and other festivals of appearance days of Vishnu-tattva in accordance with the principle of suryodayavedha and other rules of the holy scriptures.

Usually, the Lord’s appearance days begin with complete fasting until a certain time during the festival day, the fasting time is indicated on the Vaishnava calendar. After that time, one can take Ekadashi prasadam.

“Observing Janmashtami is a spiritual activity for three reasons: the Supreme Lord becomes satisfied, this is the instruction of the scriptures and one commits sin not keeping this vow.”

(Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 15.266)

Fasting on the appearance days of Vishnu-tattva ends the next day with a paran, breaking of the fast.

Note: The description of how to determine the time of breaking fast is given in «Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa». For Janmashtami it begins with text 397, chapter 15. For Rama-navami it begins with text 252, chapter 14.

The day of Lord Siva, Siva-ratri, is celebrated according to the rules for the days of the appearance of Vishnu-tattva.

“When Vaishnavas observe Siva-ratri, their bhakti to Krishna increases by the mercy of Rudradeva, who is always ready to pour his mercy on the devotees of the Lord.”

(Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 13.221)

3. Fasting on the Vaishnava’s appearance days

There are no fasting on the days of appearance and disappearance of Vaishnavas.

4. Fasting rules for Chaturmasya-vrata

4.1. Restricted products during the entire Chāturmāsya

  1. tomatoes;
  2. eggplants;
  3. honey;
  4. loki, parmal, urad dahl.

4.2. Restricted products during each of the four months of Chāturmāsya

  1. First month: No leafy vegetables including all kinds of cabbage, salads of all kinds, spinach, celery, herbal teas, leafy herbs like parsley, dill, basil, oregano;

  1. Second month: No yoghurt *;

*Note: if one requires it for health, it can be mixed with water.

  1. Third month: No milk *;

* Note: if one requires it for health, it can be mixed with a drop of lemon juice.

  1. Fourth month: No mustard, sesame and oils made of them.

“One should give up eating leafy vegetables in the month of Sravana (July-August). In the month of Bhadrapada (August - September), one should give up yoghurt. In the month of Asvina (September - October) one should give up milk and in the month of Kartika (October - November), one should give up eating urad dahl.”

(Skanda Purana, Nagar Khanda, Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 15.117)

“A person should also give up eating one's favorite fruits and root vegetables growing this season.”

(Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 15.121)

4.3. Additional vows of Chāturmāsya

In Chāturmāsya brahmacharis and sannyasis do not shave and try not to cut nails. One can shave and cut nails on Śrī Viśvarūpa-mahotsava, the second Purnima of Chāturmāsya. Many grihasthas also follow this rule.

5. Rules for Purusottama Masa

Restricted products during the month of Puruṣottama:

  1. tomatoes;
  2. eggplants;
  3. honey;
  4. mustard;
  5. sesame;
  6. mustard and sesame oils;
  7. loki, parmal, urad dah.

Besides, during the month of Puruṣottama brahmacharis and sannyasis do not shave and try not to cut nails. Many grihasthas also follow this rule.

6. Fasting time in different cities

It is important to note that the days of fasting and holidays, the time of their beginning, the time of breaking fast will be different in areas with different longitudes. Therefore, please find all the necessary information about fasting and holidays specifically for your city.

7. Conclusion

adya prabhṛti kartavyaṁ yan mayā kṛṣṇa tac chṛṇu
ekādaśyāṁ na bhoktavyaṁ kartavyo jāgaraḥ sadā
mahotsavaḥ prakartavyaḥ pratyaha-pūjanaṁ tava
palārdhenāpi biddhaṁ tu bhoktavyaṁ vāsarāntare
tvat-prītyāṣṭau mayā kāryā dvādaśyo vrata-saṁyutā
bhaktir bhāgavatī kāryā prāṇair api dhanair api

Chandrasharma said:

“O Lord Krishna, please listen to my intentions. I will not eat anything on Ekadashi and I will stay awake all night. I will regularly worship You and celebrate Your festivals. If Ekadashi, Janmashtami or another day of the festival is contaminated by the imposition of a different day even for a moment, then I will undoubtedly reject them for Your satisfaction. For Your pleasure I will observe the eight Maha-Dvadashi and cultivate devotional service with my life and wealth.”

(Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa 10. 485-487)

1. Introduction

“Sri Chaitanya Panjika”
Sri Srimad Bhakti Prajnana Kesava Gosvami Maharaja

Jagad-guru Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Prabhupāda is the founder of the Śrī Caitanya-pañjikā, which protects Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura’s line. This pañjikā, or calendar, expounds the proper concepts and conduct according to the pure siddhānta of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, following exclusively in the footsteps of Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī. This is why, in short, we have called this calendar Śrī Caitanyapañjikā. Another name for it is Śrī Māyāpurapañjikā, because Śrī Māyāpura is the place of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s appearance. Jagadguru Śrīla Prabhupāda has written that Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura is actually the great person who initiated the tradition of Śrī Caitanyābda, or the Caitanya Era. Today there are many pañjikās that have been popular for many years. However, they cannot be called complete (pañcāṅga) in all respects, for they have many deficiencies. They do not even mention any appropriate Vaiṣṇava titles for the time periods. Not only that, they have no provision for ascertaining time in connection with vratas such as fast days, the consideration of pure (śuddha) and mixed (biddha) periods, and the system for ascertaining auspicious times for travelling without impediments. We clearly see the absence of the pure guidance of Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura and Śrīla Prabhupāda in these pañjikās, and there is certainly a dire need for an authentic Vaiṣṇava pañjikā, exactly following in their pure line. Śrī Caitanyapañjikā has appeared to fulfil this purpose. For the information of the people in general and for the devotees of Viṣṇu, we are presenting the titles of the different divisions of time, which are found in the Viṣṇu-dharmottara and Hayaśīrṣapañcarātra:

(A) the two movements of the sun:

  1. northern (uttarāyaṇa) – Balabhadra
  2. southern (dakṣiṇāyana) – Kṛṣṇa

(B) the six seasons:

  1. summer – Puṇḍarīkākṣa
  2. rainy season – Bhogaśāyī
  3. autumn – Padmanābha
  4. light cold winter (hemanta) – Hṛṣīkeśa
  5. freezing cold winter (śīta) – Devatrivikrama
  6. spring – Mādhava

(C) the two phases (pakṣa) and additional month (malamāsa):

  1. kṣaya, or malamāsa – Puruṣottama
  2. dark fortnight (kṛṣṇa-pakṣa) – Pradyumna, Kṛṣṇa
  3. light fortnight (śukla-pakṣa) – Aniruddha, Gaura

(D) the twelve months:

  1. Vaiśākha – Madhusūdana
  2. Jyeṣṭha – Trivikrama
  3. Āṣāḍha – Vāmana
  4. Śrāvana – Śrīdhara
  5. Bhādra – Hṛṣīkeśa
  6. Āśvina – Padmanābha
  7. Kārtika – Dāmodara
  8. Agrahāyaṇa – Keśava
  9. Pauṣa – Nārāyaṇa
  10. Māgha – Mādhava
  11. Phālguna – Govinda
  12. Caitra – Viṣṇu

(E) the days of the week:

  1. Sunday – Sarva-vāsudeva
  2. Monday – Sarvaśiva-saṅkarṣaṇa
  3. Tuesday – Sthānu-pradyumna
  4. Wednesday – Bhūta-aniruddha
  5. Thursday – Ādi-kāraṇodaśāyī
  6. Friday – Nidhi-garbhodaśāyī
  7. Saturday – Avyaya-kṣīrodaśāyī

(F) the sixteen tithīs (lunar days):

  1. pratipat (first day of the lunar cycle) – Brahmā
  2. dvitīyā (second day) – Śrīpati
  3. tṛtīyā (third day) – Viṣṇu
  4. caturthī (fourth day) – Kapila
  5. pañcamī (fifth day) – Śrīdhara
  6. ṣaṣṭhī (sixth day) – Prabhu
  7. saptamī (seventh day) – Dāmodara
  8. aṣṭamī (eighth day) – Hṛṣikeśa
  9. navamī (ninth day) – Govinda
  10. daśami (tenth day) – Madhusūdana
  11. ekādaśī (eleventh day) – Bhūdhara
  12. dvādaśī (twelve day) – Gadī
  13. trayodaśī (thirteenth day) – Śaṅkhī
  14. caturdaśī (fourteenth day) – Padmī
  15. pūrṇimā and amāvasyā (full moon day and dark moon day) – Cakrī

(G) the twenty-seven constellations (nakṣatra):

  1. Aśvinī – Dhātā
  2. Bharaṇī – Kṛṣṇa
  3. Kṛttikā – Viśva
  4. Rohiṇī – Viṣṇu
  5. Mṛgaśirā – Vaṣaṭkāra
  6. Ārdrā – Bhūtabhavyabhavat Prabhu
  7. Punarvasu – Bhūtabhṛt
  8. Puṣyā – Bhūtakṛt
  9. Aśleṣā – Bhāva
  10. Maghā – Bhūtātmā
  11. Purva-phālgunī – Bhūtabhāvana
  12. Uttara-phālgunī – Avyakta
  13. Hastā – Puṇḍarīkākṣa
  14. Citrā – Viśvakarmā
  15. Svāti – Śuciśravā
  16. Viśākhā – Sadbhāva
  17. Anurādhā – Bhāvana
  18. Jyeṣṭhā – Bharttā
  19. Mūlā – Prabhava
  20. Pūrvāṣāḍhā – Prabhu
  21. Uttarāṣāḍhā – Īśvara
  22. Śravaṇā – Aprameya
  23. Dhaṇiṣṭhā – Hṛṣīkeśa
  24. Śatabhiṣā – Padmanābha
  25. Purva-bhādrapada – Amara Prabhu
  26. Uttara-bhādrapada – Agrāhya
  27. Revatī – Śāśvata

2. Calculations

2.1. True sunrise

True (astronomic) rise of the Sun is used for calculations in this version of the Vaishnava calendar. True or astronomic rise is the rise when the planet is crossing true astronomic, or mathematical, horizon.

We don’t use the visible rise in our calculations as Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Himself, as well as the holy scriptures, stated that according to the Vedas the day is equal to the night. This rule implies that the sunrise and the sunset divide twenty-four hours into two equal parts, which is possible only when we deal with the true horizon.

eka-dui-tina-cāri prahare asta haya
cāri-prahara rātri gele punaḥ sūryodaya

Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said:

“The day and the night are divided into eight praharas — four belonging to the day and four belonging to the night. After eight praharas, the sun rises again”.

(Sri Caitanya-caritāmṛta Madhya-līlā 20.390)

In the case of the visible horizon, the time of the sunrise and the sunset varies throughout the year depending on the declination of the sun and the latitude of the area. Accordingly, the length of the night is equal to the length of the day only twice a year - during the spring and autumn equinoxes, the rest of the time, the rule that the day is equal to the night is not fulfilled.

This rule that the twenty-four hours are divided into two equal parts, given in the shastras, makes it possible to use the Vaishnava calendar all over the world, which is not always convenient, if we follow the western approach of measuring the length of the day and the night.

32 settlements of the Russian Federation are located in the Arctic region, where there is a polar day and a polar night. For them tithi, a lunar day, cannot be calculated using the Western approach for determining the sunrise. Let us recall that tithi is a lunar day that starts at the sunrise. If there is no sunrise, there is no lunar day.

Note 1.

There is no daily sunrise beyond the Arctic Circle, so the western versions of the calendar cannot be calculated there.

Russian cities beyond the Arctic Circle: Murmansk, Apatity, Norilsk, Vorkuta, Severomorsk, Salekhard, Monchegorsk, Kandalaksha, Kirovsk, Naryan-Mar.

Russian towns beyond the Arctic Circle: Polyarny, Zapolyarny, Polyarnye Zori, Gadzhiyevo, Kola, Zaozyorsk, Ostrovnoy, Verkhoyansk, Nikel,Dudinka, Labytnangi, Igarka, Kovdor, Pevek, Olenegorsk,Snezhnogorsk, Srednekolymsk, Bilibino.

Russian urban localities beyond the Arctic Circle: Tiksi,Vorgashor.

Slightly south of the Arctic Circle, at the latitudes where there is also no daily sunrise, are located: Novy Urengoy, Mezen,Usinsk. Inta.

Beyond the Arctic Circle are located:

Anchrage, Barrow, Prudhoe Bay in the USA (Alaska);

Yellowknife, Iqaluit, Whitehorse in Canada;

Troms, Kirkenes, Hammerfest, Narvik, Bod, Longyearbyen in Norway;

Torshavn in Denmark and Nuuk in Greenland (Denmark);

Rovaniemi in Finland.

Naturally, there is a sunrise at the latitudes of most Western cities, but in the same location this sunrise is always at different time in different seasons of the year. The closer to the north, the more the difference in length of day and night is. Often this difference is very big, which makes it inconvenient to follow important Vedic instructions. According to the Vedic rules, it is recommended to wake up, have a wash, read mantras and start an active day four dandas (1 hour 36 minutes) before the dawn.

udayāt prāk chatasraś cha ghaṭikā aruṇodayah
tatra snānaṁ praśastaṁ syāt sa vai puṇyatamaḥ smṛtaḥ

Aruṇodajah period is 4 dandas (1 hour 36 minutes) before the dawn. This is the most auspicious time and such activity as having a wash should be done during it”.

(Skanda Purana)

If we calculate the dawn according to the visible horizon, it can turn out to be just after the midnight. And even if it is at 3-4 in the morning, the Vedas recommend getting up at 1:30-2:30… But is it good to wake up so unnaturally early? And in winter the situation is opposite. During the time span recommended for morning meditation the majority of Western people will be on their way to work.

Note 2.


22 December 2019 the visible sunrise was at 08:57, brahma-muhurta was from 07:21 to 08:57;

22 June 2019 the visible sunrise was at 03:44, brahma-muhurta was from 02:06 to 03:44.

Saint Petersburg:

22 December 2019 the visible sunrise was at 10:00, Brahma-muhurta was from 08:24 to 10:00;

22 June 2019 the visible sunrise was at 03:35, brahma-muhurta was from 01:59 to 03:35.


22 December 2019 the visible sunrise was at 10:19, brahma-muhurta was from 08:43 to 10:19;

22 June 2019 the visible sunrise was at 01:33, brahma-muhurta was from 23:57 (!) to 01:33.


22 December 2019 the visible sunrise was at 09:33, brahma-muhurta was from 07:57 to 09:33;

22 June 2019 the visible sunrise was at 04:04, brahma-muhurta was from 02:28 to 04:04.


22 December 2019 the visible sunrise was at 09:51, brahma-muhurta was from 08:15 to 09:51;

22 June 2019 the visible sunrise was at 04:48, brahma-muhurta was from 03:12 to 04:48.


22 December 2019 the visible sunrise was at 07:59, brahma-muhurta was from 06:23 to 07:59;

22 June 2019 the visible sunrise was at 04:37, brahma-muhurta was from 03:01 to 04:04.

Using the Western approach to calculate the sunrise one may come to a false conclusion that the Vedic lunar-solar calendar is an Indian tradition that can be followed only in India.

Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakur Praphupada compiled the Vaishnava calendar “Sri Chaitanya Panjika” and gave it another name “Sri Mayapur Panjika”. In its specific numbers, this calendar was calculated for India but, what was the most important, it also contained conceptual, universal principles of compiling a calendar.

“Sri Chaitanya Panjika” is a perfect calendar. Western researchers should take into account that one can use the Western approach to calculate the positions of the planets, but one should not use the usual method to determine the sunrise. The sunrise should be calculated in relation to the true (astronomical) horizon, then the time of the sunrise will be the same on the same meridian at any latitude, whether in India or in the Arctic.

If we study the Vedic literature carefully, we will see that the need for the universal approach is reflected in its principles.

It is said:

sakṛdudgatamavdārdham paśyatntarkam surāsurāh
pitarah śaśigāh pakshat svadinabcha narā bhuvi

“When the gods and demons see the sun after each sunrise for half a year; the ancestors (pitaras) who live on the Moon see it for a half-month (paksha); and people upon the Earth see the sun during their day”.

(Surya Siddhanta 12.74)

Note: the day of both demigods and demons is equal to the night, so is the day and night of the ancestors. It can be assumed, that human day should be also equal to the night. We are going to prove it by the quotes below.

tri-yāmāṁ rajanīṁ prāhus tyaktvādi-anta-chatusṭayam
nāḍīnāṁ te ubhe sandhye divasādi-anta-saṁjnite

tri-yāmāṁ - period of three yamas; rajanīṁ - nights; prāhus – say; tyaktva – not mention, except; ādi-anta– at the beginning and the end; chatusṭayam – from four parts; nāḍīnāṁ - nadi, 24 minutes; te – they; ubhe – both; sandhye – sankhyas, dusk; divasa – days; ādi-anta – at the beginning and the end; saṁjnite – is stated.

“Night is denoted as “three yamas”, except for the period of four nadis (4 periods 24 minutes each) at the beginning and at the end of it, which are two sankhyas at the beginning and at the end of the day”.

(Hari-bhakti-vilasa 12.344)

rātri-śeṣe chatur-ghaṭikā vyāpyāruṇodaja ity atra hetum āha-tri-yāmām iti | nāḍīnām ādy-antajoś chaṭuṣṭayaṁ rātrer ādau nāḍī-chatuṣṭayaṁ tyaktvā | evam ekayāmatyāgena triyāmām āhur munayaḥ | yataḥ tan nāḍīnām ādy-anta-chatuṣṭayaṁ cha divasasyādy-anta-saṁjñite te prasiddhe ubhe sandhye prāhuḥ

rātri-śeṣe – the last part of the night; chatur-ghaṭikā- four ghatikas, four periods 24 minutes each; vyāpya – penetrate; āruṇodaya – dawn; ity - thus; атра – here; hetum – reason; āha - definitely; tri-yāmām – three yamas; iti - why; nāḍīnām – nadis, 24 minutes; ādy-antayoś - at the beginning and the end; chaṭuṣṭayaṁ - from four parts; rātrer ādau – at the beginning of the night; nāḍī-chatuṣṭayaṁ - four parts 24 minutes each (nadi is 24 minutes); tyaktvā - is subtracted; evam - in this way; ekay – single; matya – is extracted from; gena – becomes; triyāmām – three yamas; āhur – say; munayaḥ – wise men; yataḥ – therefore; tan - those; nāḍīnām – nadis, 24 minutes; ādy-anta - at the beginning and the end; chatuṣayaṁ - four parts each; cha – also; divasasyādy - day ; ādy-anta - at the beginning and the end; saṁjñite – is stated; te – by those; prasiddhe – who know well; ubhe - both; sandhye – sankhyas, dusk; prāhuḥ - speak.

Srila Sanatana Gosvami comments:

«Four ghatikas of the dawn penetrate into the last part of the night, and this is definitely the reason of a word “tri-yāma” here. As wise men say, four parts of the beginning and the end of the day 24 minutes each are subtracted at first, in this way from the whole the particular is extracted and the definition “three yamas” appear. Therefore, those four 24-minute nadis at the beginning and at the end of the day are also parts of the beginning and the end of the day, which wise men call “sankhyas”.

Note: night is sometimes called “triyama”, putting the periods of two sankhyas (4 ghatikas each) separately. These two sankhyas together equal to one yama, which means that night together with the period of two sankhyas is equal to four yamas and that is equal to the length of the day.

eka-dui-tina-cāri prahare asta haya
cāri-prahara rātri gele punaḥ sūryodaya

eka-dui-tina-cāri — one, two, three, four; prahare — in praharas; asta haya — the sun sets in the evening; cāri-prahara — generally after four praharas; rātri — the night; gele — when it passes; punaḥ — again; sūrya-udaya — the sun rises.

Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said:

“The day and the night are divided into eight praharas — four belonging to the day and four belonging to the night. After eight praharas, the sun rises again”.

(Sri Caitanya-caritāmṛta Madhya-līlā 20.390)

Note: “yama” and “prahar” determine the same time span, which is equal to 1/8 of the day.

2.2. True horizon

“The day is equal to the night” - It means that the horizon, related to which the sunrise and sunset are determined, should be fixed. It should be true mathematical horizon and nothing else! In this case, the latitude and declination of the sun will not affect the time of the sunrise. The sunrise time will be determined only relative to the longitude of the area.

Astronomic, true or mathematical horizon:

Z – zenith;

H’H – astronomic, true or mathematical horizon;

С1 –theoretically visible horizon;

В1 – truely visible horizon;

е – observation height.

Astronomic (true or mathematical) horizon is a plane, which is perpendicular to the line passing through the observation point and the center of the earth, and limited by the conditional circle of the celestial sphere.

The visible horizon is the line of the visible boundary of heaven and earth.

Raising or decreasing of the visible horizon is connected with atmospheric refraction of light rays.

The time of sunrise relative to the visible horizon depends on the declination of the star and the latitude of the observation area. In the case of the true horizon, the sunrise time is the same on the same meridian, i.e. it does not depend on the latitude of the area, this time does not change depending on the declination of the sun, which means it is the same throughout the year.

If we take the true horizon as a reference point, the time of sunrise, sunset and noon will fluctuate slightly due to the uneven movement of the sun during the year and some other factors. To understand this phenomenon one needs to study the equation of time and the concept of Analemma.

2.3. The Equation of Time

The equation of time is the difference between the mean solar time and true solar time.

Mean solar time is the average time of the sun to move along the ecliptic (in the geocentric coordinate system).

The sun moves unevenly throughout the year, these fluctuations of speed are reflected in the concept of “true solar time”.

The unevenness of the daily movement of the Sun is due to the uneven movement of the Earth on its orbit (in terms of the heliocentric coordinate system) and the tilt of the axis of rotation of the Earth relative to the plane of the Earth’s orbit, i.e. the inclination of the ecliptic plane towards the plane of the celestial equator.

Uneven movement of the Earth is due to the ellipticity of its orbit, and movement in such an orbit implies a greater speed in perihelion and slower in aphelion.

The inclination of the axis of the Earth also affects the speed of movement, since it implies different angles during the year between the plane of rotation of the Earth and the ecliptic, the plane of the apparent rotation of the Sun. In the area of solstices, the plane of rotation of the Earth will be practically the same as the plane of motion of the Sun, and on the days of the equinoxes, on the contrary, the angle will be maximum. The movement at an angle to the plane and the movement parallel to the plane will give a different result. Accordingly, the speed of the daily movement of the Sun also depends on the inclination of the axis of the Earth to the plane of its orbit.

2.4. Analemma

The difference between true and mean solar time causes an observable phenomenon called analemma. It shows that the sun will be in several different parts of the celestial sphere at the same time during the year.

If we fix the azimuth of the sun daily during local noon, every day this azimuth will shift. The sun will not always be at its zenith at the average local noon. At the same time, the sun will always be at its zenith, while crossing the meridian of observation, but this moment will be different during the year. The difference between the time of the observed zenith and the average local noon will be +14.3 minutes in February and – 16.4 minutes in November.


Analemma is a curve formed from points that were recorded at the same time of the day when observing the Sun during the year.

Since the zenith of the Sun, or astronomical noon, does not coincide with the time of the noon according to local average time, the local true solar time was used in the calculations of this calendar.

The difference between the mean solar time and true solar time is reflected in the fact that sunrise, noon and sunset on the calendar will be at slightly different times during the year. This means that the calendar always shows the exact time of astronomical sunrise, noon and sunset and does not require any additional corrections.

2.5. Daylight saving time

The script of the Vaishnava calendar checks the change of time zones and takes into account daylight saving (DST) corrections when calculating each date and each calendar event. No additional corrections on the part of users in connection with the implementation or cancellation of daylight saving time are required.

2.6. Calculating the date of Krishna’s Appearance.

Link to video.

3. About the calendar program

The calculation of the planets' positions is based on the ephemeris data of NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

The program does not use any third-party modules to perform calculations, the algorithms of all calculations are embedded in the program itself.

The program makes calculations for the Vaishnava calendar based on traditional methods described in “Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa” and other shastras.

The purity of Ekadashi is calculated according to the principle of arunodhaya-veddha, and the purity of Vishnu-tattva appearance days is calculated according to the principle of suryodhaya-veddha.

As the tithis can be both added and missed, in case of missing tithis, when there are festivals connected with Vaishnavas, the celebrating is transferred to the next tithi.

The program calculates: the time of true and visible rise, set and zenith of the Sun, true rise of the Moon, tithis (lunar days), nakshatra (constellation) at sunrise, lunar month, the year of Gaurabda era and the year since Krishna’s Appearance Day, Sankranti (transfer of the Sun to the new zodiac sign), dates of lunar and soar eclipses, adhika masa (extra month) and kshaya masa (removed month), the beginning and the end of Chaturmasya, Kartik and other vratas (vows), Shuddha-Ekadashi and Maha-Dvadashi, Appearance days of Vishnu-tattva, avirbhava and tirobhava tithis of Vaishnavas, and other festivals and events.

4. Services

Additional options of the calendar.

Calendar features include a subscription to the notification about its events, via messengers and social networks messages. The program generates calendar news for sites and social networks of users and it is possible to connect one's account in the social networks or a website to the Vaishnava calendar and receive our newsletters.


Since the glossary is small, the terms are arranged according to the frequency of their use in the calendar.

Fasting rules for Ekadashi, Maha-Dvadashi, Chaturmasya, Kartik, Purushottama and appearance days of Vishnu-tattva are stated in the section «Fasting Rules».

Note: the examples from the calendar are given at the end of the glossary.


Periods of lunar months:

  1. Gaura, Gaura Paksha, is the first fortnight of a lunar month (light one). It starts after Amavasya (new Moon) and lasts until Purnima (full Moon).
  2. Krishna, Krishna Paksha, is the second fortnight of the lunar month, the period of the fading moon (dark one). It starts after Purnima (full Moon) and lasts until Amavasya (new Moon).

Lunar days:

  1. Tithi is a lunar day that starts at sunrise.

Note: the name of the lunar day can be written with the word “tithi” or without it, e.g. Pratipat or Pratipat-tithi.

Names of tithi, lunar days:

  1. Amavasya - new Moon. On this day, the Moon is completely dark and therefore not visible.
  2. Purnima - full Moon. On this day, the entire visible side of the moon is fully lit.
  3. Pratipat – the first lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon.
  4. Dvitiya – the second lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon.
  5. Tritiya – the third lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon.
  6. Chaturthi – the fourth lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon.
  7. Panchami – the fifth lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon.
  8. Shashthi – the sixth lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon.
  9. Saptami – the seventh lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon.
  10. Ashtami – the eighth lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon.
  11. Navami – the ninth lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon.
  12. Dashami – the tenth lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon.
  13. Ekadashi – the eleventh lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon. If this day is shuddha, “pure”, i.е. not overlain by the previous day, which means that Dashami finishes before arunodhaya (it is a period equal to 1 hour and 36 minutes) and it is not Maha-dvadashi due to the contact with tithis and nakshatras, then it is a fasting day called Shuddha-Ekadashi, pure Ekadashi. The rules for Ekadashi are stated in the section “Fasting Rules”.
  14. Dvadashi - the twelfth lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon. If the previous Ekadashi is not pure, the fasting is transferred from Ekadashi to Dvadashi and this day is called Maha-dvadashi. If Dvadashi contacts with a certain tithi or a certain nakshatra, it is also marked as Maha-dvadashi.
  15. Thrayodashi – the thirteenth lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon.
  16. Chaturdashi – the fourteenth lunar day after the new Moon or the full Moon.

Lunar months:

  1. Māsa, Maase means month.

Note: the name of the lunar month can be written with the word “Māsa” or without it, e.g. Madhusudana or Madhusudana Māsa.

The names of lunar months:

Note: the other name of the same month is given in brackets.

  1. Madhusudana Māsa (Vaisakha) – April – May.
  2. Trivikrama Māsa (Jyeshtha) – May – June.
  3. Vamana Māsa (Ashadha) – June – July.
  4. Shridhara Māsa (Shraavana) – July – August.
  5. Hrishikesha Māsa (Bhadra) – August – September.
  6. Padmanabha Māsa (Ashvin) – September – October.
  7. Damodara Māsa (Kartik) – October – November.
  8. Keshava Māsa (Mrigashirsha or Agrahayana) – November – December.
  9. Narayana Māsa (Pausha) – December – January.
  10. Madhava Māsa (Magha) – January – February.
  11. Govinda Māsa (Phalguna) – February – March.
  12. Vishnu Māsa (Chaitra) – March – April.
  13. Purusottama Adhika Māsa is a compensation additional month; thanks to Adhika Māsa (adhika means additional) the lunar calendar is fit into the solar one.


  1. Gaurabda is chronology beginning with the appearance day of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu on Purnima of Phalguna Māsa 18 February 1486.
  2. Krishnabda is chronology beginning with the appearance day of Krishna on Krishna Ashtami Phalguna Māsa in 3226 BC.


  1. Nakshatra is a constellation.

Note: the name of the nakshatra can be written with the word “nakshatra” or without it, e.g. Ashvini or Ashvini Nakshatra.

The names of constellations:

  1. Ashvini – the name of the constellation.
  2. Bharani – the name of the constellation.
  3. Krittika – the name of the constellation.
  4. Rohini – the name of the constellation.
  5. Mrigashirsha – the name of the constellation.
  6. Ardra – the name of the constellation.
  7. Punarvasu – the name of the constellation.
  8. Pushya – the name of the constellation.
  9. Ashlesha – the name of the constellation.
  10. Magha – the name of the constellation.
  11. Purva Phalguni – the name of the constellation.
  12. Uttara Phalguni – the name of the constellation.
  13. Hasta – the name of the constellation.
  14. Chitra – the name of the constellation.
  15. Swati – the name of the constellation.
  16. Vishakha – the name of the constellation.
  17. Anuradha – the name of the constellation.
  18. Jyeshtha – the name of the constellation.
  19. Mula – the name of the constellation.
  20. Purva Ashadha – the name of the constellation.
  21. Uttara Ashadha – the name of the constellation.
  22. Shravana – the name of the constellation.
  23. Дхаништха – the name of the constellation.
  24. Shatabhisha – the name of the constellation.
  25. Purva Bhadrapada – the name of the constellation.
  26. Uttara Bhadrapada – the name of the constellation.
  27. Revati – the name of the constellation.

Other terms of the calendar:

  1. Sankhya is twilight, an intermediate period of 1 hour 36 minutes between day and night, when it is favorable to perform spiritual practice.
  2. Sankranti is the transition of the Sun into a new astrological sign.

Analysis of the examples

The examples of the first lines of the calendar for different days:

Gaura Tritiya Padmanabha Māsa (Ashvin) 533/5245. Swati.

Krishna Pratipat Damodara Māsa (Kartik) 533/5245. Revati.

Amavasya Damodara Māsa (Kartik) 533/5245. Swati.

Purnima. Damodara Māsa (Kartik) 533/5245. Bharani.

The first terms denote the Vedic name of the lunar day. In the given examples these terms are Gaura Tritiya, Krishna Pratipat, Amavasya, Purnima.

The terms Gaura and Krishna denote the light and dark fortnights of the lunar month.

The terms Amavasya (new Moon) and Purnima (full Moon) are unique and do not repeat during one lunar month. The names of other lunar days have the terms Gaura or Krishna before them as they include serial numbers of the days, which repeat during the light and dark fortnights of the month.

After the notification of the fortnight comes the serial number of the day. In the given examples they are Tritiya and Pratipat.

Amavasya and Purnima are the fifteenth lunar days. They do not come with the serial number like the rest of the days as it has been explained earlier.

The next term is the name of the month. In the given examples they are Padmanabha Māsa (Ashvin) and Damodara Māsa (Kartik).

Then the years in Gaurabda / Krishnabda chronology are indicated with the numbers.

The last term is Nakshatra. It is the constellation where the Moon is located during the time of the sunrise.

Complete data example:

Purnima Govinda Māsa (Phalguna) 533/5245. Purva Phalguni.
Sri Gaura Purnima Maha Mahotsava! The Appearance Day of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu!

Absolute fast till moonrise (19:25), then Ekadashi preparations only.
Sankhyas: morning from 06:37 to 07:25, day from 13:01 to 13:49, evening from 19:25 to 20:13
Actual sunrise, noon, sunset: 07:25, 13:25, 19:25.
Visible sunrise, noon, sunset: 07:45, 13:25, 19:05.


After the Vedic date of fasting and festivals, if there are some, special fasting instructions for the day are indicated on the calendar.

Note: general fasting recommendations are stated in the section «Fasting Rules». They are not stated in the daily issue of the calendar.

In the given example, there is a notification about the festival, time span for the absolute fast and fasting recommendations after the absolute fast is completed: Sri Gaura Purnima Maha Mahotsava!

The Appearance Day of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu! Absolute fast till moonrise (19:25), then Ekadashi preparations only.

Note that the exact time of breaking fast (paran) is given on the next day in the calendar as, according to the Holy Scriptures, the fasting periods always finish after the sunrise of the next day or later.

After fasting periods and festivals, if there are some, the sankhya is given. It is the twilight time favorable for spiritual practice, as it is shown in the example:

Sankhyas: morning from 06:37 to 07:25, day from 13:01 to 13:49, evening from 19:25 to 20:13

The last lines, after the sankhya notification, show the time of actual and visible sunrise and sunset. One can read about the actual and visible horizon in the section “Calendar Documentation”.